According to islamic methodology, there are three main sources of study. Five senses (havas-ı selime), mind and faithful (true) news. Five senses make us recognize material properties of things. Mind produces knowledge in the ways of perception, experience, inference (induction, deduction, analogy). This knowledge is of human. Source of true news is the Quran and sunnah. That is the knowledge which Allah (May His Glory be Exalted!) delivered in the way of revelation by means of prophets. The type of revelation reserved for other people out of prophets(saints) is called “inspiration” that is accepted as a subjective knowledge source.The results reached by mind in the light of principles drawn by revelation will provide us equipments on the subject of methods and sources of islamic economy.
Universal knowledge which obtained by five senses is limited by relativity of universe. In fact, in a whole life, we can understand a very limited area. For the Hereafter, there are positive and negative believes. “They know but the outer (things) in the life of this world: but of the end of things they are heedless./ do they not reflect in their own minds? Not but for just ends and for a term appointed, Did Allah (M.H.G.E.) create the heavens and the Earth,and all between them: yet are there truely many among men who deny the meeting with their Lord (M.H.G.E.) (At the Resurrection!).” (Rum, 30/7-8)
Methodology we use when islamic economy is examined is mainly based on principles derived from perception. Matters out of this, change according to time and place. Matters have been acted once, make experience potential and they help us seek solutions problems today without bonding us. Islam, on one hand, put forward to becoming experienced of indivudials, and having moral and virtues with a political approach; on the other hand, it targets to act peaceful world by giving them to service of congregation. It encourages to help one another, to love each other in sake of Allah (M.H.G.E.), without any return. It bonds law principles which it established to these virtues which are source of peace and found deep inside human souls. On the other hand, to rescue soul from pressure of material, it establishes main rules which will organise economical life. As it gives assurance to all these with a powerful state; it determines secondary rules changing according to time and place, besides main principles with legal institutions like interpretation, comparison, concurrence, approval, usage and custom.
These sources are sources of canonical law , as well. Canonical law means understandig as a word. Its terminological meaning is in second plan. Therefore, the thing we have to do first is to try to understand İslam. We can examine “islamic economy” in the entire Islam, in this way only.
Prof. Ahmet Tabakoglu