A civil right is an applicable right or privilege, which if intervened with by another gives rise to an action for damage.  Examples of civil rights are freedom of speech, press, and gathering;  the right to vote;  being free from involuntary servitude;  and the right to equality in common  places.  Discrimination takes place when the civil rights of an individual are denied or intervened with because of their membership in a particular group or class.  A number of  jurisdictions have enacted statutes to avoid  discrimination based on a person’s race, sex, religion, beliefs, colors, social status,  age,  previous condition of servitude, physical limitation, national origin, and in some instances sexual orientation.

There are two views about the place of religion in modern society which should be refused.  Both come out of the European Enlightenment.  The first suggests that religion should  be rejected as irrational.  Even if religious persecution is not to be excused, religion should be despised and its death  urged.  The second  suggests that religion should be recognized as something important to some people, and therefore tolerated within closely  defined limits.  This is one kind of liberal view which affirms  that religious faith and practice is acceptable provided it is not inconsistent with more fundamentally important commitments  a  good community  should have to keep  individual liberty. Religious communities should be required to conform to these values, and consented to practice within the bounds that these values delimit.

The first view ought to be refused partially since it fails to identify the centrality of religious belief and practices to so much of human community.  However, it is also of questionable value because it says nothing about what may be put in its place.  The conceptual and the socialising roles played by religion are not thought over.

The second view is more hard to take care of.  It does not look for to exclude religion but to widen it.  What is wrong with this?  To make sure, disciples of particular religious beliefs may not desire  it.  However, those people who wish to widen illiberal practises consider it would be a good thing, if it is appreciated or not.  That is not a question.  The difficulty is that this tendency is inconsistent  with a right perception  of the character of civil community.



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